China’s increasing global engagement requires an adjustment of the security mindset and new security-related instruments to safeguard against expanding Chinese interests overseas. Under Xi Jinping, the PRC has modified its military strategy, highlighting a new dimension of security threats (e.g., cyberspace), paying more attention to the country’s navy and air forces and in developing capabilities to win information wars along with centralising decision-making. Under these circumstances, China’s security activities extend beyond Asia and may lead to tension or even conflicts. But there are also opportunities. The PRC’s growing interests in Europe, Africa and the Middle East mean the EU may be able to cooperate with China on such security issues as the refugee crisis and fighting terrorism.